New state law suggests employers should carefully evaluate relationships
By Janice Grimes
With the recent passage of California Senate Bill 459, it is more important than ever that employers closely analyze any independent contractors with whom they work to verify that they do indeed meet the state and federal guidelines for that classifications. As discussed in the following article, the penalties for misclassification are now substantial.
The general rule is that an individual is an independent contractor if the employer has the right to control or direct only the result of the work and not the means and methods of accomplishing the result.
Facts that provide evidence of the degree of control and independence fall into three categories:
Behavioral: Does the company control or have the right to control what the worker does and how the worker does his or her job?
Financial: Are the business aspects of the worker’s job controlled by the payer? (these include things like how worker is paid, whether expenses are reimbursed, who provides tools/supplies, etc.)
Type of relationship: Are there written contracts or employee type benefits (i.e. pension plan, insurance, vacation pay, etc.)? Will the relationship continue and is the work performed a key aspect of the business?
In addition, the courts have created a five-factor test for determining independent contractor status. The factors are:
- the degree of control exerted over the worker;
- the worker’s opportunity for profit or loss;
- the worker’s investment in his/her business;
- the permanence of the working relationship; and
- the degree of skill required to perform the work.
As an aid to determining whether an individual is an employee under the common law rules, 20 factors or elements have been identified as indicating whether sufficient control is present to establish an employer-employee relationship.
1. Instructions. A worker who is required to comply with other persons’ instructions about when, where, and how he or she is to work is ordinarily an employee.
2. Training. Training a worker by requiring an experienced employee to work with the worker, by corresponding with the worker, by requiring the worker to attend meetings, or by using other methods, indicates that the person or persons for whom the services are performed want the services performed in a particular method or manner.
3. Integration. Integration of the worker’s services into the business operation generally shows that the worker is subject to direction and control.
4. Services rendered personally. If the services must be rendered personally presumably the person or persons for whom the services are performed are interested in the methods used to accomplish the work as well as in the result.
5. Hiring, supervising, and paying assistants. If the person or persons for whom the services are performed hire, supervise, and pay assistants, that factor generally shows control over the workers on the job. However, if one worker hired supervises, and pays the other assistant pursuant to a contract under which the worker agrees to provide materials and labor and under which the worker is responsible only for the attainment of a result, this factor indicates an independent contractor status.
6. Continuing relationship. A continuing relationship between the worker and the person or persons for whom the services are performed indicates that an employer-employee relationship exists.
7. Set hours of work. The establishment of set hours of work by the person or persons for whom the services are performed is a factor indicating control.
8. Full time required. If the worker must devote substantially full time to the business of the person or persons for whom the services are performed. An independent contractor, on the other hand, is free to work when and for whom he or she chooses.
9. Doing work on employer’s premises. If the work is performed on the premises of the person or persons for whom the services are performed, that factor suggests control over the worker, especially if the work could be done elsewhere. Work done off the premises of the person or persons receiving the services, such as the office worker, indicates some freedom from control. However, this fact by itself does not mean that the worker is not an employee. The importance of this factor depends on the nature of the service involved and the extent to which an employer generally would require that employees perform such services on the employer’s premises.
10. Order or sequence set. If a worker must perform services in the order or sequence set by the person or persons for whom the services are performed, that factor shows that the worker is not free to follow the worker’s own pattern of work but must follow the established routines and schedules of the person or persons for whom the services are performed.
11. Oral or written reports. A requirement that the worker submit regular or written reports to the person or persons for whom the services are performed indicates a degree of control.
12. Payment by hour, week, month. Payment by the hour, week, or month generally points to an employer-employee relationship, provided that this method of payment is not just a convenient way of paying a lump sum agreed upon as the cost of a job. Payment made by the job or on a straight commission generally indicates that the worker is an independent contractor.
13. Payment of business and/or traveling expenses. If the person or persons for whom the services are performed ordinarily pay the worker’s business and/or traveling expenses, the worker is ordinarily an employee.
14. Furnishing of tools and materials. The fact that the person or persons for whom the services are performed furnish significant tools, materials, and other equipment tends to show the existence of an employer-employee relationship.
15. Significant investment. If the worker invests in facilities that are used by the worker in performing services and are not typically maintained by employees (such as the maintenance of an office rented at fair value from an unrelated party), that factor tends to indicate that the worker is an independent contractor.
16. Realization of profit or loss. A worker who can realize a profit or suffer a loss as a result of the worker’s services (in addition to the profit or loss ordinarily realized by employees) is generally an independent contractor, but the worker who cannot is an employee. For example, if the worker is subject to a real risk of economic loss due to significant investments or a bona fide liability for expenses, such as salary payments to unrelated employees, that factor indicates that the worker is an independent contractor.
17. Working for more than one firm at a time. If a worker services for a multiple of unrelated persons or firms at the same time, that factor generally indicates that the worker is an independent contractor.
18. Making service available to general public. The fact that a worker makes his or her services available to the general public on a regular and consistent basis indicates an independent contractor relationship
19. Right to discharge. The right to discharge a worker is a factor indicating that the worker is an employee and the person possessing the right is an employer. An independent contractor, on the other hand, cannot be fired so long as the independent contractor produces a result that meets the contract specifications.
20. Right to terminate. If the worker has the right to end his or her relationship with the person for whom the services are performed at any time he or she wishes without incurring liability, that factor indicates an employer-employee relationship.
Now is the time to look closely at any independent contractors with whom your company works to ensure that they meet these criteria.
Janice Grimes is a principal with Redwood Management Services, a human resources consultant with over 30 years of experience. Her office is in San Rafael, 415-457-9819 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
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