VineNotes: Wineries can hedge against foreign-exchange swings

[caption id="attachment_79043" align="alignright" width="180"] VineNotes by Charles Day[/caption]

Foreign currency volatility can be a challenge for any California winery trading abroad. Whether importing barrels or bulk wine, the lack of certainty in U.S. dollar cost can adversely impact a winery’s bottom line.

As a result of sharp valuation undulations between the U.S. dollar and euro, California wineries have turned to foreign-exchange hedging products, such as forward contracts, to protect their profit margins.Paying it 'forward'

Wineries that buy or sell products into Europe or other foreign markets have many options when considering foreign-exchange (forex or FX) hedging. The most common hedging product utilized by California wineries is an "FX forward contract."

In general, an FX forward contract is an agreement to buy or sell a currency at a specific exchange rate and on a specific date -- or during a specific period of time. These contracts are obligations in which both parties deliver a specific currency to the other party, on an agreed-upon date and for an agreed-upon amount of another currency.

Wineries that know specifically when they will either receive or send a foreign currency will likely choose to enter into what is known as a "plain-vanilla" forward contract. This transaction requires that the winery either deliver U.S. dollars or the agreed-upon foreign currency to the institution providing the contract.

While this is typically a very straightforward transaction, issues may arise. Failure to deliver the agreed-upon currency on the specified date may require the financial institution to sell or "mark to market" the contract on the open market. This type of cancellation typically results in a financial gain or loss on the part of either party; depending upon the exchange rate differential between the trade execution date and the cancellation of the FX forward contract.

If a winery is not certain when it will either send or receive a foreign currency, it may find it advantageous to enter into a "window forward" contract. This allows a company to establish a date range when booking the forward contract. This is particularly valuable in situations involving the sale of wine in a foreign currency and not knowing specifically when foreign-denominated payment will be received.

Typically, a date range of up to 30 days is used under the forward contract. Given the lack of uncertainty surrounding the exact "value date" of the "window forward," exchange rates are generally slightly higher than exchange rates offered under plain-vanilla forward contracts.Hedging in restricted markets

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