Six months after the Camp fire killed 85 people and destroyed the town of Paradise, residents from the Sierra Nevada communities east of Chico had confirmation of what was long suspected: one of PG&E’s aging transmission lines sparked the wildfire that ruined so many lives.
It’s a swift conclusion compared to the 16 months that survivors of the 2017 Tubbs fire waited to receive Cal Fire’s far less decisive report in that blaze. After a lengthy process of elimination at an origin site mostly destroyed by fire, the agency announced earlier this year that electric equipment owned by an elderly Napa County property holder likely caused the 36,807-acre fire that burned west across the Mayacamas Mountains into Santa Rosa, killing 22 people and destroying more than 4,700 homes. The finding cleared PG&E of responsibility and left the Tubbs as the only major blaze in the 2017 October firestorm not caused by the utility’s equipment.
Investigations into the Camp and Tubbs fires developed along separate paths, at different paces and arrived at disparate conclusions.
There are no standards for fire investigation timelines because “every fire is different,” Cal Fire spokesman Michael Mohler said. He declined to discuss the factors that led the Tubbs fire investigation to drag on out of concern that it might reveal investigative techniques and impede the Butte County District Attorney’s Office review of Cal Fire’s findings.
“We don’t work by a clock. We work by what we have to do,” Mohler said. “Timelines are never in our schedule, and every fire poses different challenges.”
Wednesday’s report on the Camp fire’s cause won’t change the course of bankruptcy proceedings for upwards of 10,000 households seeking compensation from PG&E for their losses in 2017 and 2018 wildfires under a newly tooled process overseen by the bankruptcy judge.
“There’s been a working assumption from the beginning that this (the Camp fire) was a PG&E-fault case,” said Santa Rosa-based attorney Roy Miller, who lost his Wikiup home in the Tubbs fire and is part of a legal group representing about 4,000 households with property losses in the state’s major fires. “It’s simply the last piece of that puzzle.”
The 153,336-acre Camp fire ignited Nov. 8 near Pulga, burning east into the foothill town and spreading west into Concow, Paradise, Magalia and the outskirts of east Chico. It destroyed 18,804 structures, including nearly 15,000 homes. PG&E’s recent estimate pegged its liabilities stemming from the Camp fire at $10.5 billion.
As far back as November, PG&E public filings and statements foreshadowed Cal Fire’s conclusion. In a statement Wednesday, utility officials said Cal Fire’s determination the fire started with transmission lines near Pulga “is consistent with the company’s previous statements.”
In contrast, Cal Fire’s findings about the Tubbs fire, announced Jan. 24, diverged from widely held assumptions about how it started. Those expectations were fueled in part by investigations into other 2017 fires in which Cal Fire identified PG&E electric equipment as the prime ignition source. Separately, PG&E had also notified utility officials that it had equipment in the area of the fire’s origin outside Calistoga that had failed around the time the inferno erupted.
The agency’s determination, laid out in an 80-page report, that privately owned and maintained electric equipment off Bennett Lane sparked the Tubbs fire rattled many survivors of the firestorm and spurred uncertainty about whether they would become a lone group unable seek compensation from the investor-owned utility for catastrophic losses. Tubbs fire liabilities were estimated at $17 billion.
Cal Fire findings in 18 Northern California wildfires
Camp fire (Butte County, 2018): 85 deaths, 18,804 structures destroyed, 153,336-acres burned; referred to the District Attorney. The fire started in two locations: with a PG&E electrical transmission line near Pulga and when vegetation came into contact with the utility’s electrical distribution lines near Concow Road.
Tubbs fire (Napa and Sonoma counties): 22 deaths, 5,636 structures, 36,807-acres. The fire started with a property owner’s private electrical equipment.
Redwood fire (Mendocino County): 9 deaths, 543 structures destroyed, 36,523 acres burned. The fires started in two locations when trees or tree parts fell onto PG&E power lines.
Nuns, Norrbom, Adobe, Partrick & Pythian fires (Sonoma and Napa counties): 3 deaths, 1,355 structures destroyed, 56,556 acres burned (Sonoma and Napa counties); all but Nuns fire referred to the District Attorney.
• Nuns: Broken top of a tree crashed into power lines.
• Norrbom: Tree fell onto power lines.
• Adobe: Tree fell into PG&E power line.
• Partrick: Oak tree fell into PG&E power lines.
• Pythian: The fire started with a downed power line caused after PG&E tried to re-energize the line.
Atlas fire (Napa County): 6 deaths, 783 structures burned, 51,624 acres burned; referred to the District Attorney. The fire started Oct. 8 in two locations when a large limb broke from a tree and came into contact with PG&E power lines and a tree fell onto the same line.
Sulphur fire (Lake County): 2,207 acres, 162 structures destroyed; referred to the District Attorney. Fire ignited when a PG&E power pole failed, causing power lines and equipment to contact the ground.
Pocket fire (Sonoma County): 6 structures destroyed, 17,357 acres burned; referred to the District Attorney.
37 fire (Sonoma County): 3 structures destroyed, 1,660 acres burned (Sonoma County). PG&E distribution lines started an electrical fire.
Blue fire (Humboldt County): 20 acres burned; referred to the District Attorney. A PG&E power line conductor separated from a connector, causing the conductor to fall to the ground and start a fire.
Cherokee fire (Butte County): 6 structures destroyed, 8,417 acres burned. Fire started when tree limbs made contact with PG&E power lines.
La Porte fire (Butte County): 6,151 acres burned and 74 structures destroyed. Fire started early Oct. 9 when tree branches fell into PG&E power lines. Investigators found no state law violations.
McCourtney fire (Nevada County): 76 acres burned; 13 structures destroyed; referred to the District Attorney. Fire started Oct. 8 when tree fell into PG&E power lines. Investigators determined PG&E failed to remove a tree too close to a power line.
Lobo fire (Nevada County): 821 acres burned; 47 structures destroyed; referred to the District Attorney. Fire started Oct. 8, caused by a tree contacting PG&E power lines. Investigators found PG&E failed to ensure adequate clearance between trees and power lines.
Honey fire (Butte County): 76 acres burned; referred to the District Attorney. Fire started Oct. 9 when an oak branch contacted PG&E power lines. Investigators found PG&E failed to ensure adequate clearance between trees and power lines.
*Those cases referred to the District Attorney indicate Cal Fire determined PG&E was in violation of state laws governing utility line maintenance, such as failing to clear trees from powerlines.